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Tracking and privacy concerns on websites

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Thanks to another great “internet stumble”, I came across Laura Kalbag’s blog and her stance on privacy and tracking. She’s been giving talks on the subject and created ad- and track-blocking software. Ever since the European GDPR, cookie banners have annoyed website visitors, but how many of us simply press “Accept, now get on with it”? I did a few experiments, and the results are downright scary.

Take a look at, “Het Laatste Nieuws”, a Belgian newspaper website. Opera informs me the SSL certificate is valid:

Cookies on the HLN site

Wait, what? 75 cookies in use? Did I give my consent for every single one of those? You bet I did not! Luckily, I browse with “protection on” these days, and my protection of choice is not an Adblocker plugin using Google Chrome but Opera’s built-in security systems. Pay special attention to the console errors in the above screenshot: net::ERR_BLOCKED_BY_ADBLOCKER. I do not want to know what happens when I turn it off.

Where do these nasty things come from? Who’s keeping an eye on me and should I be tracking the trackers? Good question. Here’s another screenshot of the Sources tab, to get an idea of where all the data (and thus, trackers) are coming from at

Resources and servers used by the HLN website

These servers are serving data when my adblocking system is turned off. A quick look at that webites says things like “make every story count” and “translate strategy into actionable notifications”. Smells like they’re shipping off tracking data to one of those analytics companies that feed on the information of others.

Let’s try another more authorative news website in Belgium, This time, I let Opera inform me on what was blocked and what was not. It blocks both ads and trackers (image pixels, javascript).

Opera tracker report of

It still contains 12 blocked trackers. Most of those are downright advertisers, but others are more subtle. The most common one is of course Google Analytics.

Google has it’s tentacles across 80% of the entire internet. Laura Kalbag

I don’t want that for my visitors!

Enough investigation, time for some introspection. What happens when I expose this website to the above tools? Opera blocked one tracker: Google Analytics. The server tab contains the following servers:

  • Google Fonts
  • Google CDN: Bootstrap
  • Google Analytics
  • Font Awesome Icons
  • Another CDN: jQuery
  • Goodreads scripts on the about page

It is unavoidable that these endpoints can get access to your visitor’s referer URL, and possibly the IP. That means loading a static resource such as a .woff2 font or a .css stylesheet actually comes at a cost - the cost of giving away your wherabouts. Time for some refactoring.

I threw out Bootstrap, jQuery, and Font Awesome, and refactored my Hugo theme to utilize Sass (reducing the mean load of an uncached page with more than 200kb!). Next, I threw out Google Analytics in favor for Fathom1, another small and privacy-focused self-hosted go container (netting me another 40kb). Then, I hosted all third-party libraries I used myself. So rest assured, Google does not know you were here! This is how the Fathom dashboard looks like:

The Fathom dashboard

The commenting system I self-host is Commento2, a fast, privacy-focused commenting platform. It does come with cookies if you decide to login, but then again: it’s on my own SSL-verified domain. Disqus, the popular and standard static website commenting system, has been known before to be coming with hidden costs.

Is Your Data Worth Trading for Convenience?

When a YouTube video is embedded into one of these pages, it will run in “no cookie” mode. That means content will be served from, preventing Google from tracking my visitors. I’d rather self-host .webm/.mp4 content, but copying over someone else’s video raises another concern: copyrights.

I added these privacy measures to the no-copyright footer.

But what about my Social embeds?

Good question. Simple answer: get rid of them.

For Goodreads on this website, I wrote a node script that acts as an anti-corruption layer to fetch the embedded JS code, thus avoiding any cookies. Book cover images are of course still offloaded - although I could also download those.

For Facebook integraion on my other website Red Zuurdesem, things were a bit more difficult. The problem is that I rely on Facebook to build a community there. As Laura suggested, “Post content to your own website first, then push to third-parties”. Facebook page posts are copied into .md files that are searchable using lunr.js.

For the “classic” Facebook widget - well, I cheated… by taking a screenshot:

the Facebook Widget

Sometimes, the simplest solutions are the best. I bet nobody notices it’s static content. I might even go out on a limb here and retake the screenshot once in a while. This gives me the freedom of throwing out the ugly Facebook JS API and token system that has to be renewed every few months (and comes with tons of “free” cookies!). Good riddance.

For Twitter integration on another website of mine called Jefklak’s Retro Game Codex, I simply rip images and videos to self-host them. A private Twitter account acts as a bridge between my Nintendo Switch and my website - currently, there’s no other way to transfer images and videos (besides Facebook). Hooray for HTML5 <video/> tags!

Creating a website does not stop after writing HTML tags…

There are so many things to take into consideration. I’ve never given them much thought, until now, and I have to say I’m glad I’m learning. From what I gather so far, the following things need to be taken into consideration:

  1. Speed. People flee after waiting for more than two seconds (I know I do). Compress images, use interlaced mode and cache headers, …
  2. Responsiveness. Everything should be in relative rem and not in absolute px, use srcset image attributes, write @media CSS queries, …
  3. Design. People also flee if it’s not pleasant to the eyes.
  4. Security. Use (self-signed) SSL https:// certificates. Provide base security levels for your own vps. Use honey pots for form submissions.
  5. Development. Continuous integration/deployment - setup a node/hugo build chain. Make things easy to commit and revert if neccessary. Have a backup plan?
  6. Content. The most important piece of the puzzle. But what about tags or categories? Files or databases? What about maintainability? Or editors and logins?
  7. Privacy. Don’t track visitors, track traffic instead!
  8. Licences. Which copyright system are you applying? Did you attribute your sources correctly?
  9. SEO. If your site is not found, tumbleweeds instead of readers start appearing…
  10. Accessibility. Use contrasting colors, write alt tags, …

I haven’t looked at that last part yet - accessibility. To be continued! (Edit: continued here)

  1. Since 2021, I’ve migrated to a self-hosted GoatCounter instance, getting rid of all client-side tracking cookies. ↩︎

  2. Since 2021, I’ve decided to stop using commenting systems. One less thing to worry about. If you like to comment, simply use Mastodon or e-mail instead. ↩︎

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I'm Wouter Groeneveld, a Brain Baker, and I love the smell of freshly baked thoughts (and bread) in the morning. I sometimes convince others to bake their brain (and bread) too.

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